Help:References

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    Preferred citation style

    Scholarpedia provides wiki templates that will format your citation's in Scholarpedia's preferred style. However, if you don't use the templates, we encourage you to follow the guidelines provided here. The preferred style is mainly determined by the styles used previously. If you have questions, either see written articles or ask support@scholarpedia.org.

    Formatting journal references

    The following general format is used for journal references:

    The names of the authors should be separated by semi-colons, except for the second-to-last and last author, which should be separated by the word "and". The last name should go first followed by a comma and then the first and, optionally, middle initials. For example:

    • Surname1, First initials1; Surname2, First initials2; Surname3, First initials3 and Surname4, First initials4.

    Note that the DOI must be included if the article has it. Assistant editors are happy to assist in this task.

    The "cite journal" template can be used to write journal references. More examples will follow later in this article, but for a quick example:

    • Izhikevich, E.M.; Gally, J.A. and Edelman, G.M. (2004). Spike-timing Dynamics of Neuronal Groups. Cerebral Cortex 14 (8): 933-944. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhh053. 

    Can be achieved with:

    * {{cite journal
    | ref = Izhikevich2004
    | last1 = Izhikevich
    | first1 = E.M.
    | last2 = Gally
    | first2 = J.A.
    | last3 = Edelman
    | first3 = G.M.
    | title = Spike-timing Dynamics of Neuronal Groups
    | volume = 14
    | number = 8
    | pages = 933-944
    | year = 2004
    | doi = 10.1093/cercor/bhh053
    | journal = Cerebral Cortex
    }}
    

    or

    {{Bibitem article 3|Spike-timing Dynamics of Neuronal Groups|Cerebral Cortex|14(8)|2004|933-944|Izhikevich|E.M.|Gally|J.A.|Edelman|G.M.|doi=10.1093/cercor/bhh053|label=Izhikevich2004}}
    

    Formatting book references

    Books with a single author or coauthors use the following general format:

    Authors (Year). Book Title. Publisher. ISBN 0123456789. 

    For example:

    • Dayan, P. and Abbott, L.F. (September 1, 2005). Theoretical Neuroscience (1 ed.). MIT Press. ISBN 0262541858. 

    which you can get with:

    * {{cite book
    | ref = Dayan2005
    | title = Theoretical Neuroscience
    | first1 = P.
    | last1 = Dayan
    | first2 = L.F.
    | last2 = Abbott
    | publisher = MIT Press
    | edition = 1
    | date = September 1, 2005
    | ISBN = 0262541858
    }}

    For compilations, the following format is used:

    • Lazareva, O.F.; Shimizu, T. and Wasserman, E.A., eds (March 14, 2012). How Animals See the World: Comparative Behavior, Biology, and Evolution of Vision. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195334655. 

    which you can get with:

    * {{cite book
    | editor1-first = O.F.
    | editor1-last = Lazareva
    | editor2-first = T.
    | editor2-last = Shimizu
    | editor3-first = E.A.
    | editor3-last = Wasserman
    | title = How Animals See the World: Comparative Behavior, Biology, and Evolution of Vision
    | publisher = Oxford University Press
    | date = March 14, 2012 
    | isbn=0195334655 }}

    In this case, only the editors are included and not the chapter authors.

    For a specific chapter of a compilation, the following format is used:

    • Nieder, Andreas (March 14, 2012). "Chapter 9: How jumping spiders see the world". in Lazareva, O.F.; Shimizu, T. and Wasserman, E.A.. How Animals See the World: Comparative Behavior, Biology, and Evolution of Vision. Oxford University Press. pp. 117-163. ISBN 0195334655. 

    which you can get with:

    * {{cite book
    | editor1-first = O.F.
    | editor1-last = Lazareva
    | editor2-first = T.
    | editor2-last = Shimizu
    | editor3-first = E.A.
    | editor3-last = Wasserman
    | title = How Animals See the World: Comparative Behavior, Biology, and Evolution of Vision
    | publisher = Oxford University Press
    | chapter = Chapter 9: How jumping spiders see the world
    | first = Andreas
    | last = Nieder
    | pages = 117-163
    | date = March 14, 2012 
    | isbn=0195334655 }}

    Harvard referencing

    Scholarpedia uses parenthetical referencing, also known as Harvard referencing.

    In-text citations

    References should cite the articles like "(Smith 2005)" within the body of the article. References should be order by last names and then year of publication (see below).

    Groups of authors larger than 2 may be cited with "et al.".

    • As proven in (Albero A, 1999).
    • As Albero (2009) said.
    • As proven in (Albero & Bocca, 2001)
    • As proven by Albero and Bocca (2001)
    • As proven by Albero et al. (2003)
    • As proven by Albero, Bocca and Cuoco (2003)
    • As proven by Albero et al. (2007a), confirmed by Albero et al. (2007b) and discarded by Albero et al. (2007c)

    If a label has been defined via the label=mylabel parameter in the Bibitem templates or ref=mylabel parameter in the Citation templates, than the citation can be put in a link: [[#mylabel|text]] (in--page link, see #User--defined internal links and in--page links).

    • To get: as proven in (Albero A, 1999), type: as proven in [[#albero1999|(Albero A, 1999)]].
    • To get: as proven by Albero and Bocca (2001), type: as proven by [[#albo2001|Albero and Bocca (2001)]].

    Ordering references

    In the reference list, references must be lexicographically ordered according:

    • surname1,
    • given name1,
    • surname2, (no surname2 first, then etal, then any surname2)
    • given name2,
    • Third and subsequent authors are not used for ordination
    • publication-year.

    For example:

    • Albero, Antony (1999). Pizza Margherita. Journal of pizza eaters 19(3): 13. arXiv:0808.000
    • Albero, Antonio and Bocca, Bill (2001). Pizza Capricciosa. Journal of pizza eaters 27: 121-127. arXiv:0808.000
    • Albero, Antonio; Bocca, Bill and Cuoco, C T (2003). Pizza Quattro Stagioni. Journal of pizza eaters 34(4): 12.
    • Albero, Antonio; Bocca, Bill; Cuoco, C T and Dude, David B (2007a). Pizza Napoletana. Journal of pizza eaters 37: 121-127.
    • Albero, Antonio; Bocca, Bill; Cuoco, C T; Dude, David and Elica, E Q (2007b). Pizza Marinara. Journal of pizza eaters 43(4): 1-13.
    • Albero, Antonio et al. (2008). Pizza Piccante. Journal of pizza eaters 45(5): 1-13.
    • Alto, Antony (1999). La Pizza! Mangiare bene, Volume 3. Albero and Bacca editors. Food Publishers, Genoa.
    • Alto, Antony and Bocca, Bill (2000). La Pasta! Mangiare bene. Albero editor. Food Publishers, Genoa. Chapter 1.
    • Alto, Antony; Bocca, Bill and Cuoco, C T (2002). Pizza: prepare it yourself. Food Publishers, Genoa. Page 22. ISBN 1-234-99929-0.
    • Alto, Antony; Bocca, Bill; Cuoco, C T and Dude, David B (2005a). Italian Pizza. Food Publishers, Genoa.
    • Alto, Antony; Bocca, Bill; Cuoco, C T; Dude, David B and Elica, E Q (2005b). Napolitan Pizza. Second edition. Food Publishers, Genoa.
    • Alto, Antony et al. (2005c). American Pizza. Food Publishers, Genoa.

    Groups of authors having the same first two authors and publishing year must be disambiguated with a label suffix (a lowercase letter) to the publication year. (add "|letter=<lowercase letter>|" in the Bibitem text) E.g.:

    • Wilkinson, Julie (1999a). Apocalypse Pizza. Jane's Defense Weekly 1563(74): 2818.
    • Wilkinson, Julie (1999b). Pies à la Mode. French Firefighters' Journal of Flammable Food 3(14): 159-256.

    Examples using templates

    There are two families of templates which Scholarpedia supports. It is up to the authors to decide which family is easiest for them to use. The bibitem family was supported on Scholarpedia first and most of the articles on Scholarpedia use these templates. The bibitem family is terser, since it utilizes unnamed parameters. The citation/core family is more similar to the BibTeX style and is based off of the family of the same name on Wikipedia. Both families render the references in the same style.

    Using citation/core templates

    The citation/core family of templates, which includes cite journal and cite book, is based off of the citation templates used in Wikipedia. Here are some additional examples for their use.

    • Izhikevich, E.M. and Edelman, G.M. (2008). Large-scale model of mammalian thalamocortical systems. PANAS 105 (9): 3593-3598. doi:10.1073/pnas.0712231105. 

    Can be achieved with:

    * {{cite journal
    | last1 = Izhikevich | first1 = E.M.
    | last2 = Edelman | first2 = G.M.
    | title = Large-scale model of mammalian thalamocortical systems
    | volume = 105
    | number = 9
    | pages = 3593-3598
    | year = 2008
    | doi = 10.1073/pnas.0712231105
    | journal = PANAS
    }}
    

    Using bibitem templates

    The bibitem templates were the first templates that Scholarpedia provided for citations and are used in more Scholarpedia articles.

    To build up your reference list you can use the bibitem template we provide. This way, the list of references you write will always be updated if a change in the conventions is performed. The syntax of templates follows.

    • Below, N=1,2,3,4,5 or N=etal is the number of authors.
    • The order of unnamed parameters should be respected.
    • Unnamed parameters are mandatory; eventually they might be replace with a " "(one blank space), but this might result in a bad layout. If this is the case write the reference without using the template.
    • The order of named (optional) parameters is arbitrary and their position does not influence unnamed parameters.
    • No ending white space should be added to parameters' values.
    • No punctuation should be added in the values of the unnamed parameters, apart the parameter corresponding to the TITLE.
    • The named parameters should be instead terminated by fullstop, apart LABEL and LETTER.
    • LABEL below is a label that could be referred with an internal link like [[#LABEL| this text links to LABEL]], see #Citing references.


    • {{Bibitem article N |TITLE|JOURNAL|VOLUME(NUMBER)|YEAR|PAGES|SURNAME1|FORNAME1|...|SURNAMEN|FORNAMEN|letter=LETTER|label=LABEL|preprint=PREPRINT}}
        • TITLE, JOURNAL,..., PREPRINT should be replaced by their actual values.
        • No punctuation should be added in parameters' values, unless TITLE and PREPRINT that should terminate with a fullstop/mark.
        • FORENAME= Antony or Antony D or A D (Initials without punctuation).
        • (VOLUME) is optional.
        • See also Template:Bibitem article 5 for more detailed informations.
    • {{Bibitem book N |TITLE|PUBLISHER|ADDRESS|YEAR|SURNAME1|FORNAME1|...|SURNAMEN|FORNAMEN|letter=LETTER|label=LABEL|series=SERIES|editors=EDITORS|pages=PAGES|isbn=ISBN}}
        • TITLE, PUBLISHER, ...., ISBN should be replaced by their actual values.
        • No punctuation should be added in parameters' values, unless TITLE, SERIES, EDITORS, PAGES and ISBN that should terminate with a fullstop/mark.
        • FORENAME= Antony or Antony D or A D.
        • See also Template:Bibitem book 5 for more detailed informations.

    Examples. If you type:

    *{{Bibitem article 1|Pizza Margherita.|Journal of pizza eaters|19(3)|1999|13|Albero|Antony|preprint=arXiv:0808.000|label=albero1999}}
    *{{Bibitem article 2|Pizza Capricciosa.|Journal of pizza eaters|27|2001|121-127|Albero|Antonio|Bocca|Bill|preprint=[http://arxiv.org/abs/0808.0000  arXiv:0808.000]|label=albo2001}}
    *{{Bibitem article 3|Pizza Quattro Stagioni.|Journal of pizza eaters|34(4)|2003|12|Albero|Antonio|Bocca|Bill|Cuoco|C T}}
    *{{Bibitem article 4|Pizza Napoletana.|Journal of pizza eaters|37|2007|121-127|Albero|Antonio|Bocca|Bill|Cuoco|C T|Dude|David B|letter=a}}
    *{{Bibitem article 5|Pizza Marinara.|Journal of pizza eaters|43(4)|2007|1-13|Albero|Antonio|Bocca|Bill|Cuoco|C T|Dude|David|Elica|E Q|letter=b}}
    *{{Bibitem article etal|Pizza Piccante.|Journal of pizza eaters|45(5)|2008|1-13|Albero|Antonio}}
    *{{Bibitem book 1|La Pizza!|Food Publishers|Genoa|1999|Alto|Antony|series=Mangiare bene, Volume 3.|editors=Albero and Bacca editors.}}
    *{{Bibitem book 2|La Pasta!|Food Publishers|Genoa|2000|Alto|Antony|Bocca|Bill|series=Mangiare bene.|editors=Albero editor.|pages=Chapter 1.}}
    *{{Bibitem book 3|Pizza: prepare it yourself.|Food Publishers|Genoa|2002|Alto|Antony|Bocca|Bill|Cuoco|C T|isbn=ISBN 1-234-99929-0.|pages=Page 22.|label=this work is false}}
    *{{Bibitem book 4|Italian Pizza.|Food Publishers|Genoa|2005|Alto|Antony|Bocca|Bill|Cuoco|C T|Dude|David B|letter=a}}
    *{{Bibitem book 5|Napolitan Pizza. Second edition.|Food Publishers|Genoa|2005|Alto|Antony|Bocca|Bill|Cuoco|C T|Dude|David B|Elica|E Q|letter=b|label=11}}
    *{{Bibitem book etal|American Pizza.|Food Publishers|Genoa|2005|Alto|Antony|letter=c}}
    

    You will get the example reference list in section Writing references.

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