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    Welcome to Scholarpedia

    the peer-reviewed open-access encyclopedia,
    where knowledge is curated by communities of experts.

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    Academics author encyclopedic articles on the subject areas they know best.

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    Each article undergoes scholarly peer-review and, if accepted, is published.

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    As the field advances, an expert curator vets article revisions.

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    Pioneer: write the first persistent online review in your area of specialization

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    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Scholarpedia, 2(10):2936. (2007)

    Anthony T. Barker

    Dr. Anthony T. Barker was born in 1950 in Morley (Leeds, UK) and received his Bachelors in Engineering in 1971 from the University of Sheffield. In graduate school he specialized in Medical Electronics, obtaining his Ph.D. from the University of Sheffield in 1976. From 1976 until 1990 he worked as physicist at Royal Hallamshire Hospital, as well as holding the title of Lecturer at the University of Sheffield (1977-1999). Since 1999 he has been a Professor Associate at the University of Sheffield and is a Consultant Clinical Scientist in the Department of Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital.

    Prof. Barker has given numerous prestigious and invited lectures all over the globe. In part for his role in the development of Magnetic Nerve Stimulation (MNS), he has received awards from the British Institution of Electrical Engineers (now the "Institution of Engineering and Technology") and the Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine. Dr. Barker won the First International Brain Stimulation Award 2016 for outstanding contributions to the field of brain stimulation.

    Prof. Barker began his research on MNS during his postgraduate research in 1975, and more than 3000 papers have arisen from his original papers on the subject. One of the most popular applications of MNS is Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), a method of non-invasively inducing temporary lesions in specific areas of cortex, changing cortical excitability and directly stimulating the cortex. This extremely popular technology has seen a multitude of applications in both research and clinical settings. In addition to his work in the high level magnetic fields of MNS, Prof. Barker is also interested in the biological effects of low-level electromagnetic fields such as those from mobile phones and overhead power cables, and in electrophysiological signals analysis.

    Each week Scholarpedia recognizes a different contributing author by featuring a short bio of them on the home page.

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    Focused encyclopedias are published by Springer/Atlantis Press as printed volumes. The first printed volume is....

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      Image by Atlantis Press licensed under CC BY 4.0, copyright 2016.

      Scholarpedia of Touch

      Tony J. Prescott, Ehud Ahissar, and Eugene Izhikevich, Eds. (2016). Scholarpedia of Touch. Paris: Atlantis Press.

      Touch is the ability to understand the world through physical contact. The noun “touch” and the verb “to touch” derive from the Old French verb “tochier”. Touch perception is also described by the adjectives tactile from more Icon more.png

    • Image by Springer/Atlantis Press licensed under CC BY 4.0, copyright 2016.

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      Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture

      Denis Ullmo (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(9):31721.

      In their seminal 1984 paper Bohigas, Giannoni and Schmit (1984-a) (see also Bohigas, Giannoni and Schmit 1984-b), stated a conjecture... more Icon more.png

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      Evolutionary Robotics

      Fernando Silva et al. (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(7):33333.

      Evolutionary robotics is a field of research that employs evolutionary computation to generate robots that adapt to... more Icon more.png

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      High energy cosmic rays

      Lu Lu and Alan Watson (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(7):32454.

      Cosmic rays with the kinetic energy of a well-hit tennis ball strike the top of the earth’s atmosphere about 10 times every second... more Icon more.png

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      The LHCb experiment

      Fatima Soomro and PierLuigi Campana (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(7):32452.

      The dominance of matter in our Universe is one of the deepest mysteries in Nature. According to theoretical models, matter and anti-matter... more Icon more.png

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      Rare decays of b hadrons

      Patrick Koppenburg et al. (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(6):32643.

      Physics studies fundamental interactions and their effects. At the most basic level, particle physics aims to describe the fundamental blocks of... more Icon more.png

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