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    Welcome to Scholarpedia

    the peer-reviewed open-access encyclopedia,
    where knowledge is curated by communities of experts.

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    Academics author encyclopedic articles on the subject areas they know best.

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    Each article undergoes scholarly peer-review and, if accepted, is published.

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    As the field advances, an expert curator vets article revisions.

    Disseminate: share your expertise with a global audience

    Pioneer: write the first persistent online review in your area of specialization

    Steward: supervise the development of articles in your field

    Collaborate: work with expert scientists and scholars from around the world

    Learn: gain experience with scholarly writing and editing

    Publish: transform your writing into a peer-reviewed article

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    Spike-timing dependent plasticity

    Scholarpedia, 5(2):1362 (2010).

    Adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model

    Scholarpedia, 4(6):8427 (2009).

    Spike response model

    Scholarpedia, 3(12):1343 (2008).

    Wulfram Gerstner

    Dr. Wulfram Gerstner began his study of physics at the universities of Tübingen and Munich in Germany. He spent a period working with Prof. William Bialek at the University of California in Berkeley, before obtaining a PhD. at the Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich under the supervision of Prof. Leo van Hemmen in 1993. Thereafter, he continued as a post doctoral fellow, carrying out research in theoretical neuroscience at Munich. After a short research stint with Larry Abbott at Brandeis University, Waltham MA, he returned to Munich to continue his post doctoral research. In 1996, he moved to the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) as an Assistant Professor in Neural Computation. Since 2001, he has been Professor and Director of the Laboratory of Computational Neuroscience at the EPFL, holding a joint appointment between the schools of Life Sciences and Computer & Communication Sciences. Dr. Gerstner is perhaps most widely acclaimed for his pioneering theoretical work on spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). He is also widely acknowledged for his research in theoretical models of spiking neurons, adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron models, and the spike response model. Dr. Gerstner has authored more than 100 research articles and also a book entitled 'Spiking neuron models', which has been very well received by the neuroscience community. To learn more about Dr. Gerstner's research please visit

    Each week Scholarpedia recognizes a different contributing author by featuring a short bio of them on the home page.

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    Focused encyclopedias are published by Springer/Atlantis Press as printed volumes. The first printed volume is....

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      Image by Atlantis Press licensed under CC BY 4.0, copyright 2016.

      Scholarpedia of Touch

      Tony J. Prescott, Ehud Ahissar, and Eugene Izhikevich, Eds. (2016). Scholarpedia of Touch. Paris: Atlantis Press.

      Touch is the ability to understand the world through physical contact. The noun “touch” and the verb “to touch” derive from the Old French verb “tochier”. Touch perception is also described by the adjectives tactile from more Icon more.png

    • Image by Springer/Atlantis Press licensed under CC BY 4.0, copyright 2016.

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      Rare decays of b hadrons

      Patrick Koppenburg et al. (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(6):32643.

      Physics studies fundamental interactions and their effects. At the most basic level, particle physics aims to describe the fundamental blocks of... more Icon more.png

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      Bianchi universes

      Andrew Pontzen (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(4):32340.

      Bianchi universes are the class of cosmological models that are homogeneous but not necessarily isotropic on spatial slices, named after... more Icon more.png

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      Mesoscopic transport and quantum chaos

      Rodolfo A. Jalabert (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(1):30946.

      The field of Quantum Chaos, addressing the quantum manifestations of an underlying classically chaotic dynamics, was developed in... more Icon more.png

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      Artificial General Intelligence

      Ben Goertzel (2015), Scholarpedia, 10(11):31847.

      The term "Artificial General Intelligence" (often abbreviated "AGI") has no broadly accepted precise definition, but has multiple closely... more Icon more.png

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      Deep Learning

      Juergen Schmidhuber (2015), Scholarpedia, 10(11):32832.

      Deep Learning has revolutionised Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning. It is about credit assignment in adaptive systems with... more Icon more.png

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