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    Welcome to Scholarpedia

    the peer-reviewed open-access encyclopedia,
    where knowledge is curated by communities of experts.

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    Academics author encyclopedic articles on the subject areas they know best.

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    Each article undergoes scholarly peer-review and, if accepted, is published.

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    As the field advances, an expert curator vets article revisions.

    Disseminate: share your expertise with a global audience

    Pioneer: write the first persistent online review in your area of specialization

    Steward: supervise the development of articles in your field

    Collaborate: work with expert scientists and scholars from around the world

    Learn: gain experience with scholarly writing and editing

    Publish: transform your writing into a peer-reviewed article

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    Proprioceptors and Models of Transduction

    Scholarpedia, 10(5):12390. (2015)

    Musculoskeletal Mechanics and Modeling

    Scholarpedia, 11(11):12389. (2016)

    Muscle Physiology and Modeling

    Scholarpedia, 8(10):12388. (2013)

    Gerald E. Loeb

    Gerald E. Loeb (b. 1948, New Brunswick, NJ) received a Bachelor of Arts in 1969 and Doctor of Medicine in 1972 at Johns Hopkins University. He was an intramural scientist at the National Institutes of Health 1973-1988 before moving to Queens’s University (Kingston, Canada) as Professor of Physiology and Director of the Bio-Medical Engineering Unit. He is currently Professor of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Southern California, a position he has held since 1999.

    Dr. Loeb is listed in Medical Device & Diagnostic Industry Magazine’s 100 Notable People in the Medical Device Industry. He is the inventor of a biomimetic tactile sensing system, for which he was given the Popular Mechanics Breakthrough Innovator Award in 2013. SynTouch LLC, a spin-off company for which he serves as CEO, was designated a Technology Pioneer by the World Economic Forum.

    Loeb has published over 300 peer-reviewed articles, 65 issued US patents and a book on electromyography. He has made major contributions to the development of the cochlear implant, a device that restores hearing to the deaf. His lab uses neurophysiological techniques and computer modelling to investigate the sensorimotor system in health and in disease. He has used these findings to guide the design of neural prosthetics.

    For more information, visit:

    Each week Scholarpedia recognizes a different contributing author by featuring a short bio of them on the home page.

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    Focused encyclopedias are published by Springer/Atlantis Press as printed volumes. The first printed volume is....

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      Image by Atlantis Press licensed under CC BY 4.0, copyright 2016.

      Scholarpedia of Touch

      Tony J. Prescott, Ehud Ahissar, and Eugene Izhikevich, Eds. (2016). Scholarpedia of Touch. Paris: Atlantis Press.

      Touch is the ability to understand the world through physical contact. The noun “touch” and the verb “to touch” derive from the Old French verb “tochier”. Touch perception is also described by the adjectives tactile from more Icon more.png

    • Image by Springer/Atlantis Press licensed under CC BY 4.0, copyright 2016.

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      Figure 1 Vibrissal mechanoreceptors.png

      Vibrissal mechanoreceptors

      Satomi Ebara et al. (2017), Scholarpedia, 12(3):32372.

      Most mammals possess rows of whiskers (i.e., vibrissae) on both sides of the face arranged in an orderly grid on the mystacial pad. The vibrissal shafts of... more Icon more.png

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      Sensorimotor accounts of joint attention

      Alexander Maye et al. (2017), Scholarpedia, 12(2):42361.

      Joint attention is a social-cognitive phenomenon in which two or more agents direct their attention together towards the same object. Definitions range from... more Icon more.png

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      Weak gravitational lensing

      Matthias Bartelmann and Matteo Maturi (2017), Scholarpedia, 12(1):32440.

      According to the theory of general relativity, masses deflect light in a way similar to convex glass lenses. This gravitational lensing effect is... more Icon more.png

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      Computational models of Alzheimer's disease

      Vassilis Cutsuridis and Ahmed A Moustafa (2017), Scholarpedia, 12(1):32144.

      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative aging disorder affecting millions of individual worldwide. AD is associated with... more Icon more.png

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      Bondi-Sachs Formalism

      Thomas Mädler and Jeffrey Winicour (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(12):33528.

      The Bondi-Sachs formalism of General Relativity is a metric-based treatment of the Einstein equations in which the coordinates are... more Icon more.png

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