Prof. Isao Tanihata
RCNP, Osaka University, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki
Date of Birth: March 14, 1947
Permanent address: 6-37 Minami-senrioka
Settsu, Osaka 566-0021
Home: 6-37-1701 Minami-Senrioka
Settsu, Osaka 566-0021, Japan
Work: (mailing address)
School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University No. 37 Xueyuan Road
Haidian District, Beijing
P. R. China 100191
RCNP, Osaka University
Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan
1969.3 Bachelor's Degree, Department of Physics, Osaka University
1971.3 Master of Science, Department of Physics, Osaka University
1975.6 PhD. Osaka University
1973-78 Teaching assistant, Faculty of Science, Osaka University 1978-79 Post Doc. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, USA
1979-85 Assistant professor, Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo 1985-85 Research scientist, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, USA
1985-86 Associate professor, Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo 1
1986-2003 Principal scientist, RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research)
1997-2003 Visiting Professor, Tokyo Science University.
1999- Visiting Professor, Peking University, China
2000-2003 Professor, Graduate School, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
2002-2005 Professor, Hanoi University of Natural Science, Vietnam
2003-2004 Executive Director, RIKEN, Wako, Japan
2004-2006 Visiting Senior Scientist, Argonne National Laboratory, USA
2005-2007 Collaborative Research Scientist, TRIUMF, Canada
2007-2008 Visiting Research Scientist, GANIL, France
2007-2012 Professor, RCNP Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
2010- present Professor, Beihang university, Beijing, China
2011- present Director Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, Beihang University, Beijing, China
2012- present Specially appointed professor, RCNP Osaka University, Osaka Japan
The Physical Society of Japan American Physical Society, Fellow
1990 -2004 Nuclear Physics Committee of Japan
1994 -2004 Japan Science Council (Physics Committee)
1994 -2004 Associate editor of “Nuclear Physics A”
1997 -2004 Supervisory Board of “ Nuclear Physics A”
1995 -’96 International advisory of “Journal of Physics G”
1995 -2003 Nishina Prize selection committee
1996 -2005 Editorial board of “Journal of Physics G”
1997-’99 OECD MegaScience Forum, nuclear physics working group
1999-2000 Atomic Energy Commission basic science committee
1999-2000 OECD Global Science Forum, Radioactive nuclear beams group
2000-2003 Atomic Energy Commission, accelerator science group
2004-2007 Sub-atomic physics Experimental Evaluation Committee, TRIUMF
2008 SuperFRS Review Committee, GSI, Germany
2014- Spokesperson of Super-FRS collaboration, GSI-FAIR, GSI
Miller Award; University of California, Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science 1975
Nishina Prize; Nishina Memorial Foundation, 1989.
APS Fellow; American Physical Society 1994.
Professor Honoris Causa; Bucharest University, Romenia, May 1997.
The GSI Exotic Nuclei Community Membership Award, GSI Germany, 2000
Thousand Talent Program; China government, 2010
Humboldt Scientific Award; Humboldt foundation, Germany, 2011
Conference and school Organization:
1. Organization of International Conferences
I organized many conferences in the field of nuclear physics, radioactive nuclear beams, nuclear astrophysics, and others including IUPAP conferences such as
- 4th International conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions in 1991.
- 12th EMIS conference in 1991.
- 4th International conference on Radioactive Nuclear Beams in 1996.
- Nuclei in the Cosmos VII in 2002.
- Holding international symposium regularly, once a year, at Beihang university.
2. International Advisory of conferences
I also worked as a member of international committee regularly in many important conferences such as, Nuclear Physics, Nucleus-Nucleus collisions, ENAM, EMIS, Radioactive Nuclear Beams, Nuclei in the Cosmos, Cluster, as well as other local and topical conferences.
I have started international schools for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics such as RIKEN winter school, Beijing university summer school.
Research Subjects in the past
= Related journal publications are indicated by numbers in parenthesis [ ] corresponding to the List of Publication. =
= The numbers of citations listed are based on “ISI Web of Knowledge” =
Beta decay and magnetic moment studies of mirror nuclei (1973-1977)
I have started the experimental research at Osaka University as a graduate student. There I have made precise measurements of lifetimes of mirror beta decay and discussed the structure and configuration mixing in mirror nuclei. Also the meson exchange current effects to nucleon 3 magnetic moments in nuclei were discussed.
Then study of possible G-parity violation has done during my doctor course. We measured the energy dependence of asymmetry parameter of beta decay of 12N-12B. I also studied hyperfine interactions using beta-NMR method and found a new method to see the interference between magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole interactions.
High-energy heavy-ion collisions (1978-1985)
Since 1977, at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, I have studied high-energy heavy-ion collisions and searched for exotic effects such as nuclear shockwave, pion condensation, and hot and high- density nuclear matter. I mainly worked on the inclusive production of pions from heavy-ion collisions and on nucleon-nucleon quasi-free scattering in heavy-ion and proton-nucleus collisions. An important finding was that the thermal equilibrium is not reached in collisions of medium mass nuclei. We discovered fluid dynamical effects in collisions of very heavy nuclei.
Nuclear Structure using radioactive ion beams (1985- present)
In early 80s, in Berkeley, I have invented a method to produce beams of radioactive nuclei using projectile fragmentation reaction of high-energy heavy ions. The method, for the first time, provided a mean to make reactions of short-lived isotopes at high energy. Back in RIKEN, I have built the concept of a separator for the RIKEN accelerator facility and joined in the construction of RIPS. Since then I have been developing the method as well as the experimental technique for use of radioactive nuclear beams.
Using beams of radioactive nuclei, we could make several discoveries,
1. Neutron halo: We first found neutron halos in 11Li and 6He nuclei from the measurement of interaction cross sections and of fragment momentum distributions of reactions with high-energy 11Li and 6He. Presently, many neutron halo nuclei have been observed and also proton halo nuclei have been reported. Neutron halos, long low-density tails of the distribution at the surface of nuclei, indicated a new structure of nuclei, and showed a decoupling of proton and neutron distributions for the first time in nucleus.
2. New excitation modes: In neutron rich nuclei, in particular for neutron halo nuclei, we found a new type of excitation mode at low excitation energies (soft E1 mode). It is essentially due to the decoupling of protons and neutrons in asymmetric nuclei.
3. Neutron skin: Neutron skins were searched in stable nuclei but no clear evidence was known before we found it from the analysis of 6He isotope cross sections. Although this was indirect evidence, later, we observed thick neutron skins in Na isotopes clearly from the comparison of charge radii and matter radii that we determined for the first time. Now it is considered that neutron skins are common phenomena in unstable neutron-rich nuclei. Also we observed an evidence of proton skin in Ar isotopes.
4. Covalent bond molecular state in nuclei: From the observation of excited states and decays of the states in 12Be, we suggested the molecular bond of alpha-clusters by neutrons. Later, such states were confirmed at GANIL by the direct measurement of rotational behavior of the excited states.
5. New magic numbers: In several regions of nuclear chart, it was suggested that magic numbers (the building block of nuclear shell model) disappears. It was interesting question whether the magic number just disappears in neutron-rich nuclei or a new magic number appears. From systematic studies of radii, neutron separation energies, excitation energies of the first excited states
of even-even nuclei, we have found that N=16 is a magic number. Since then we also found a few 4
more new magic numbers. The effects of new types of residual interaction and others to the order
of shell orbitals are important subject in nuclear structure physics, presently. It also affects the nucleosynthesis path in several cases.
6. 10He was considered to be the lightest asymmetric double closed nuclei and thus stable. However extensive studies failed to observe it due to the complexity of the production reactions. We discovered 10He using beam of 11Li. From 11Li the reaction is just to remove one proton and thus simple. Using similar technique we have also studied 5H, 7H, 7He and other unbound nuclei.
7. The most important achievements are determination of matter radii of almost all nuclei lighter than oxygen and some of heavier nuclei. These measurements showed many new systematics of nuclear matter distributions such as the breaking of rules believed before.
8. At ANL since 2004, I have contributed to precision mass measurements of nuclei that are important to determine the vector coupling constant Gv of weak interaction such as 46V, 42Ti, and 14O. In addition, the experiment to measure the beta-neutrino correlations in beta decay of 14O is in progress at ANL.
9. As a project at TRIUMF was to measure the two-neutron correlations in the neutron halo of the most pronounced halo nucleus 11Li. Differential cross sections of 11Li + p -> 9Li + t reaction has been measured at low energies at TRIUMF. Also new mass determination of the 11Li has been made in the same experiment.
10. I have build up theory group in RIKEN (where no permanent staff existed) promoting collaborations for nuclear structure and reactions among theoreticians in Japan. Coherent development of nuclear theory started from the development of Glauber model for heavy-ion reactions and expanded to variety of research including relativistic mean field model, antisymmetrized molecular dynamics, and Monte-Carlo shell model
11. Since 2011 I promoted a group in Beihang university. There two major experimental projects are in progress. One is the study of repulsive three body effect in heavy-ion collisions and the other is the effect of tensor interactions in nuclei. Both of them are published recently.
Nuclear astrophysics using radioactive ion beams (1992-present)
Many nucleosynthesis paths involve reactions of radioactive nuclei. The study become possible only after the availability of radioactive ion beams. As the early example, we have measured the cross section of 8Li+ α -> Be +n reaction that is important in inhomogeneous big- bang model. We also developed a system for measurement of lifetimes of R-process nuclei. The experiment will be performed when RIBF become available.
I have been building up the new group (Cosmonuclear Physics Laboratory) at RCNP recently. Present main subject is the search for the effect of the Tensor forces in nuclei. Also we are developing the radioactive beam project in RCNP.
I have developed radioactive beam separation technique and associated detectors for experiments using radioactive beams. Which includes, basic concept of the separation technique, additional separation technique with a rf deflector, high-intensity production target for fragmentation facility, windowless hydrogen target, fast timing streak camera for heavy ions, fast counting MUSIC (Multi Sampling Ion chamber).
I have resumed the study of super-heavy element search in RIKEN and recently the experiment has succeeded to observe Z=113 nucleus.
Other than nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics, I have made a few contributions in other 5
field of physics. One is the so-called “cold fusion” of deuterons. We quickly demonstrated that the limit of neutron production from “cold fusion” and also the effect of distribution of d in metals.
I have also been collaborating with biologist for making sensitive detectors of DNA fragments.
This method is now being used by several groups.
Right after the accident at Tokyo electric and power corporation’s (TEPCO) Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant (F1), group of scientists in Japan had contributed to the many matters related to the accident as individuals, as an university or an institution group, and as a regional group. Among them I have organized group of scientist using the mailing list of nuclear physics group. This movement was picked up by the MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan) and completed as a quick but detailed mapping of radioactivity on the ground. More than 740 scientists contributed to the project and it was the first experience of scientists in a history in Japan.
In summary, I have been working in various field of science. The total citation number listed in Google Scholar is 17736 with 38 papers cited more than 100 times and 81 papers cited more than 50 times. h-index is 64.
Roles in Education
Although I have been mostly worked in research institute in the past. I have given lectures in many universities including the University of Tokyo, Tokyo Institute of Technology, the Kyoto University, as well as the Beijing University if name a few. This year I have taught a graduate course in nuclear physics at TRIUMF for students from University of British Columbia and Simon Frasers University. In RIKEN I also supervised several doctor course students for their PhD thesis works as well as educated master course students for their master’s projects by introducing them to front line research. Presently, in Osaka University, I have been supervising doctor course and master course students. At Beihang university, I have been supervising also doctor and master course students also giving a lecture for physics school students.