# User:Jonathan R. Williford/Help:ScholarWiki

ScholarWiki is the wiki format used by Scholarpedia. It is largely based off of the wiki format used by Wikipedia.

## Layout

### Sections

The = through  == markup are headings for the sections with which they are associated.
• A single = is styled as the article title and should not be used within an article.
• Headings are styled through CSS and add an  link.
• Do not use any markup after the final heading markup – this will either break the heading, or will cause the heading to not be included in an edit summary.

Template:Markup And so on.

Wiki headings translate to HTML heading elements, Template:Tag through Template:Tag, styled as follows by default:

{{#lst:Help:HTML in wikitext|HTML_section}}

Templates: {{fake heading}} for use in documentation.

#### Horizontal rule

The horizontal rule represents a paragraph-level thematic break. Do not use in article content.

HTML: Template:Tag

When a page has at least four headings, a table of contents (TOC) will automatically appear after the lead and before the first heading. The TOC can be controlled by magic words or templates:

• __FORCETOC__ forces the TOC to appear at the normal location regardless of the number of headings.
• __TOC__ forces the TOC to appear at the point where the magic word is inserted instead of the normal location.
• __NOTOC__ disables the TOC entirely.
• {{TOC limit}} can be used to control the depth of subsections included in the TOC. This is useful where the TOC is long and unwieldy.

### Line breaks

Line breaks or newlines are used to add whitespace between lines, such as separating paragraphs.

• A line break that is visible in the content is inserted by pressing Template:Key press twice.
• Pressing Template:Key press once will place a line break in the markup, but it will not show in the rendered content, except when using list markup.
• Markup such as bold or italics will be terminated at a line break.

HTML: Template:Tag or Template:Tag

Templates:

• {{break}} adds multiple line breaks.
• {{crlf2}} adds a true carriage return and line feed.
• {{-}} adds a break with styling to clear floating elements.
• {{plainlist}} creates an unbulleted list.

### Indent text

Indentation is most commonly used on talk pages.

Templates: {{outdent}}, {{outdent2}}

### Blockquote

When there is a need for separating a block of text. This is useful for (as the name says) inserting blocks of quoted (and cited) text. Template:Markup

### Center text

Template {{center}} uses the same markup. To center a table, see Help:Table#Centering tables. Please do not use Template:Tag: it is obsolete.

### Lists

Do not leave blank lines between items in a list unless there is a reason to do so, since this causes the MediaWiki software to interpret each item as beginning a new list.

#### Definition lists

To list terms and definitions, start a new line with a semicolon (;) followed by the term. Then, type a colon (:) followed by a definition.

Definition lists consist of group names corresponding to values. Group names (terms) are in bold. Values (definitions) are indented. Each group must include one or more definitions. For a single or first value, the : can be placed on the same line after ; – but subsequent values must be placed on separate lines.

Templates: {{defn}}

### Retaining newlines and spaces

The MediaWiki software suppresses single newlines and converts lines starting with a space to preformatted text in a dashed box. HTML suppresses multiple spaces. It is often desirable to retain these elements for poems, lyrics, mottoes, oaths and the like. The Poem extension adds HTML-like Template:Tag tags to maintain newlines and spaces. These tags may be used inside other tags such as Template:Tag. CSS styles may be applied to this tag, e.g.: <poem style="margin-left: 2em;">.

## Format

### Text formatting

Description What you type What it looks like

Italics, bold, Template:Smallcaps

To ''italicize text'', just put
2 apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will '''bold the text'''

5 apostrophes for '''''bold italics'''''

'''''Italic and bold
formatting''''' only works properly
within a single line.

For text as {{Smallcaps|small caps}},
use a [[Help:Template|template]].


To italicize text, just put 2 apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will bold the text

5 apostrophes for bold italics

Italic and bold formatting only works properly within a single line.

For text as Template:Smallcaps, use a template.

Small chunks of source code within a line of normal text.

Code is displayed in a monospace font.

function <code>int m2()</code> is nice

function int m2() is nice

Syntax highlighting for source code.

Computer code has colored text and more stringent formatting. For example, to define a function: int m2(), with highlights.

<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp">
#include <iostream>
int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) {
std::cout <<"Hello World!";
return 0;
}</syntaxhighlight>

<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp">

1. include <iostream>

int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) {

 std::cout <<"Hello World!";
return 0;


}</syntaxhighlight>

Small text

Use <small>small text</small> if needed.

A span tag can set text font-size as
being <span style="font-size: 87%">87%
of prior size</span>, to match an
image caption.

Use small text if needed.

A span tag can set text font-size as being 87% of prior size, to match an image caption.

Big text (Obsolete)

Better not use <big>big text</big>,
unless <small> it's <big>within</big>
small</small> text.


Better not use big text, unless it's within small text.

You can include a non-breaking space (sometimes called non-printing character) where you require two words to always appear together on the same line, such as Mr. Smith or 400 km/h, using &nbsp; in place of a regular space between the two "words" that need to behave as a single word (never be separated on different lines).

Mr.&nbsp;Smith or 400&nbsp;km/h

Mr. Smith or 400 km/h

Extra spacing within text can best be achieved using the pad template.

Mary {{pad|4em}} had a little lamb.

Typewriter font (Obsolete)

(Also works beyond the end of a paragraph.)

<tt>arrow      &rarr;</tt>

<tt>''italics'', '''bold'''</tt>

New paragraph </tt>started here.

arrow →

italics, bold

New paragraph started here.

### Special characters

What you type What it looks like
&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; &AElig;

&Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;

&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde;

&Ograve; &Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &OElig;

&Ugrave; &Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &Yuml; &szlig;

&agrave; &aacute; &acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;

&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml;

&igrave; &iacute; &icirc; &iuml; &ntilde;

&ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &oelig;

&ugrave; &uacute; &ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ

Ç È É Ê Ë

Ì Í Î Ï Ñ

Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Œ

Ù Ú Û Ü Ÿ ß

à á â ã ä å æ ç

è é ê ë

ì í î ï ñ

ò ó ô õ ö ø œ

ù ú û ü ÿ

#### Punctuation, special characters

What you type What it looks like
&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;

&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;

&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;

&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;

&apos; &quot;


¿ ¡ § ¶

† ‡ • – —

‹ › « »

‘ ’ “ ”

' "

#### Subscripts and superscripts

Description What you type What it looks like

Subscripts

x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub>


x1 x2 x3

Superscripts

x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup>


x1 x2 x3

Combined

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> = 8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup> C&sup2; / J m

1 hectare = 1 E+4 m&sup2;


ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m

1 hectare = 1 E+4 m²

#### Greek characters

What you type What it looks like
&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;

&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;

&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;

&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;

&Alpha; &Beta; &Gamma; &Delta; &Epsilon; &Zeta;

&Eta; &Theta; &Iota; &Kappa; &Lambda; &Mu;

&Nu; &Xi; &Omicron; &Pi; &Rho; &Sigma;

&Tau; &Upsilon; &Phi; &Chi; &Psi; &Omega;


α β γ δ ε ζ

η θ ι κ λ μ ν

ξ ο π ρ σ ς

τ υ φ χ ψ ω

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ

Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ

Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ

Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

#### Mathematical characters

What you type What it looks like
&int; &sum; &prod; &radic;

&minus; &plusmn; &infin;

&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne;

&le; &ge;

&times; &middot; &divide; &part;

&prime; &Prime;

&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym;

&oslash;

&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup;

&sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;

&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall;

&rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr;

&rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr;


∫ ∑ ∏ √

− ± ∞

≈ ∝ ≡ ≠

≤ ≥

× · ÷ ∂

′ ″

∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ

ø

∈ ∉ ∩ ∪

⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇

¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀

⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔

→ ↓ ↑ ← ↔

In Wikipedia and some other wikis, free links are used in wikitext markup to produce internal links between pages, as opposed to the concept of CamelCase for the same purpose, which was used in the early days of Wikipedia – see CamelCase and Wikipedia.

In Wikipedia's markup language, you create free links by putting double square brackets around text designating the title of the page you want to link to. Thus, [[Texas]] will be rendered as Texas. Optionally, you can use a vertical bar (|) to customize the link title. For example, typing [[Texas|Lone Star State]] will produce Lone Star State, a link that is displayed as "Lone Star State" but in fact links to Texas.

#### Link to another wiki article

• Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
• Thus the link hereafter is to the Web address en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_transport, which is the Wikipedia article with the name "Public transport". See also Canonicalization.
• A red link is a page that doesn't exist yet; it can be created by clicking on the link.
• A link to its own page will appear only as bold text.

• Same target, different name.
• The target ("piped") text must be placed first, then the text to be displayed second.
What you type What it looks like

New York also has [[public transport|public transportation]].

New York also has public transportation.

• Simply typing the pipe character (|) after a link will automatically rename the link in certain circumstances. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When previewing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page.
• See Pipe trick for details.
Description What you type What it looks like

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses

[[kingdom (biology)|]]

Automatically hide the comma and following text [[Seattle, Washington|]] Seattle

Automatically hide namespace

[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]]

Or both

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style (headings)|]]

But this doesn't work for section links

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|]]

• Endings are blended into the link.
• Exception: a trailing apostrophe (') and any characters following the apostrophe are not blended.
• Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
• Blending can be suppressed by using the [[#Nowiki|Template:Tag]] tag, which may be desirable in some instances.
Description What you type What it looks like

Blending active

San Francisco also has [[public transport]]ation. Examples include [[bus]]es, [[taxicab]]s, and [[tram]]s.

San Francisco also has public transportation. Examples include buses, taxicabs, and trams.

Blending suppressed

A [[micro-]]<nowiki />second.

A micro-second

#### Link to a section of a page

• The part after the hash sign (#) must match a section heading on the page. Matches must be exact in terms of spelling, case, and punctuation. Links to non-existent sections are not broken; they are treated as links to the beginning of the page.
• Include "| link title" to create a stylish (piped) link title.
• If sections have the same title, add a number to link to any but the first. #Example section 3 goes to the third section named "Example section". You can use the pipe and retype the section title to display the text without the # symbol.
What you type What it looks like

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics]] is a link to a section within another page.

Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics is a link to a section within another page.

[[#Links and URLs]] is a link to another section on the current page. [[#Links and URLs|Links and URLs]] is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

#Links and URLs is a link to another section on the current page. Links and URLs is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics|Italics]] is a piped link to a section within another page.

Italics is a piped link to a section within another page.

• To create a new page:
1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
2. Save that page.
3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
• For more information, see starting an article and check out Wikipedia's naming conventions.
• Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
Description What you type What it looks like

Links to pages that don’t exist yet look red.

The article about [[cardboard sandwiches]] doesn't exist yet.

The article about cardboard sandwiches doesn't exist yet.

### Redirects

• Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
• It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to United States#History will redirect to the History section of the United States page, if it exists.
Description What you type

Redirect to an article

#REDIRECT [[United States]]

Redirect to a section

#REDIRECT [[United States#History]]

What you type What it looks like

See the [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].

See the Wikipedia:Manual of Style.

• To link to a corresponding page in another language, use the form: [[language code:Foreign title]].
• It is recommended interlanguage links be placed at the very end of the article.
• Interlanguage links are not visible within the formatted article, but instead appear as language links on the sidebar (to the left) under the menu section "languages".
Description What you type

Link from English article "Plankton" to the Spanish article "Plancton".

"es" is the language code for "Template:Lang" (the Spanish language).

[[es:Plancton]]


Other examples: French (fr for Template:Lang), German (de for Template:Lang), Russian (ru), and simple English (simple).

[[fr:Plancton]]
[[de:Plankton]]
[[ru:Планктон]]
[[simple:Plankton]]


Description What you type What it looks like

Linking to a page on another wiki in English.

All of these forms lead to the URL http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Hello.

Without prefix.

[[Wiktionary:Hello]]

[[Wiktionary:Hello|]]

[[Wiktionary:Hello|Wiktionary definition of "Hello"]]

Linking to a page on another wiki in another language.

All of these forms lead to the URL http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/bonjour.

Without prefix.

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]

### Categories

• To put an article in a category, place a link like [[Category:Example]] into the article. As with interlanguage links, placing these links at the end of the article is recommended.
• To link to a category page without putting the article into the category, use a colon prefix (":Category") in the link.
Description What you type What it looks like

Categorize an article.

[[Category:Character sets]]

[[:Category:Character sets]]

Without prefix.

[[:Category:Character sets|]]