User:Jonathan R. Williford/Help:ScholarWiki

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    ScholarWiki is the wiki format used by Scholarpedia. It is largely based off of the wiki format used by Wikipedia.

    Contents

    Layout

    Sections

    Section headings

    Template:See

    The = through

    ==

    markup are headings for the sections with which they are associated.
    • A single = is styled as the article title and should not be used within an article.
    • Headings are styled through CSS and add an [edit] link.
    • Four or more headings cause a table of contents to be generated automatically.
    • Do not use any markup after the final heading markup – this will either break the heading, or will cause the heading to not be included in an edit summary.

    Template:Markup And so on.

    Wiki headings translate to HTML heading elements, Template:Tag through Template:Tag, styled as follows by default:

    {{#lst:Help:HTML in wikitext|HTML_section}}

    Templates: {{fake heading}} for use in documentation.

    Horizontal rule

    Template:See

    The horizontal rule represents a paragraph-level thematic break. Do not use in article content.

    Template:Markup

    HTML: Template:Tag

    Table of contents

    Template:See

    When a page has at least four headings, a table of contents (TOC) will automatically appear after the lead and before the first heading. The TOC can be controlled by magic words or templates:

    • __FORCETOC__ forces the TOC to appear at the normal location regardless of the number of headings.
    • __TOC__ forces the TOC to appear at the point where the magic word is inserted instead of the normal location.
    • __NOTOC__ disables the TOC entirely.
    • {{TOC limit}} can be used to control the depth of subsections included in the TOC. This is useful where the TOC is long and unwieldy.
    • Category:Wikipedia table of contents templates contains a number of specialized TOC templates.

    Line breaks

    Template:See

    Line breaks or newlines are used to add whitespace between lines, such as separating paragraphs.

    • A line break that is visible in the content is inserted by pressing Template:Key press twice.
    • Pressing Template:Key press once will place a line break in the markup, but it will not show in the rendered content, except when using list markup.
    • Markup such as bold or italics will be terminated at a line break.

    Template:Markup

    HTML: Template:Tag or Template:Tag

    Templates:

    • {{break}} adds multiple line breaks.
    • {{crlf2}} adds a true carriage return and line feed.
    • {{-}} adds a break with styling to clear floating elements.
    • {{plainlist}} creates an unbulleted list.

    Indent text

    Template:See

    Indentation is most commonly used on talk pages.

    Template:Markup

    Templates: {{outdent}}, {{outdent2}}

    Blockquote

    When there is a need for separating a block of text. This is useful for (as the name says) inserting blocks of quoted (and cited) text. Template:Markup

    Center text

    Template:Markup

    Template {{center}} uses the same markup. To center a table, see Help:Table#Centering tables. Please do not use Template:Tag: it is obsolete.

    Align text to right

    Template:Markup

    Lists

    Template:See

    Do not leave blank lines between items in a list unless there is a reason to do so, since this causes the MediaWiki software to interpret each item as beginning a new list.

    Unordered lists

    Template:Markup

    Ordered lists

    Template:Markup

    Definition lists

    Template:Shortcut

    To list terms and definitions, start a new line with a semicolon (;) followed by the term. Then, type a colon (:) followed by a definition.

    Definition lists consist of group names corresponding to values. Group names (terms) are in bold. Values (definitions) are indented. Each group must include one or more definitions. For a single or first value, the : can be placed on the same line after ; – but subsequent values must be placed on separate lines.

    Template:Hatnote

    Template:Markup

    HTML: Template:Tag Template:Tag, Template:Tag Template:Tag

    Templates: {{defn}}

    Retaining newlines and spaces

    Template:Shortcut

    The MediaWiki software suppresses single newlines and converts lines starting with a space to preformatted text in a dashed box. HTML suppresses multiple spaces. It is often desirable to retain these elements for poems, lyrics, mottoes, oaths and the like. The Poem extension adds HTML-like Template:Tag tags to maintain newlines and spaces. These tags may be used inside other tags such as Template:Tag. CSS styles may be applied to this tag, e.g.: <poem style="margin-left: 2em;">.

    Template:Markup

    Format

    Text formatting

    Description What you type What it looks like

    Italics, bold, Template:Smallcaps

    To ''italicize text'', just put
    2 apostrophes on each side.
    
    3 apostrophes will '''bold the text'''
    
    5 apostrophes for '''''bold italics'''''
    
    '''''Italic and bold
    formatting''''' only works properly
    within a single line.
    
    For text as {{Smallcaps|small caps}},
    use a [[Help:Template|template]].
    

    To italicize text, just put 2 apostrophes on each side.

    3 apostrophes will bold the text

    5 apostrophes for bold italics

    Italic and bold formatting only works properly within a single line.

    For text as Template:Smallcaps, use a template.

    Small chunks of source code within a line of normal text.

    Code is displayed in a monospace font.

    function <code>int m2()</code> is nice

    function int m2() is nice

    Syntax highlighting for source code.

    Computer code has colored text and more stringent formatting. For example, to define a function: int m2(), with highlights.

    <syntaxhighlight lang="cpp">
    #include <iostream>
    int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) {
      std::cout <<"Hello World!";
      return 0;
    }</syntaxhighlight>

    <syntaxhighlight lang="cpp">

    1. include <iostream>

    int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) {

     std::cout <<"Hello World!";
     return 0;
    

    }</syntaxhighlight>

    Small text

    Use <small>small text</small> if needed.
    
    A span tag can set text font-size as
    being <span style="font-size: 87%">87%
    of prior size</span>, to match an
    image caption.

    Use small text if needed.

    A span tag can set text font-size as being 87% of prior size, to match an image caption.

    Big text (Obsolete)

    Better not use <big>big text</big>,
    unless <small> it's <big>within</big>
    small</small> text.
    

    Better not use big text, unless it's within small text.

    You can include a non-breaking space (sometimes called non-printing character) where you require two words to always appear together on the same line, such as Mr. Smith or 400 km/h, using &nbsp; in place of a regular space between the two "words" that need to behave as a single word (never be separated on different lines).

    Mr.&nbsp;Smith or 400&nbsp;km/h

    Mr. Smith or 400 km/h

    Extra spacing within text can best be achieved using the pad template.

    Mary {{pad|4em}} had a little lamb.

    Mary Template:Pad had a little lamb.

    Typewriter font (Obsolete)

    (Also works beyond the end of a paragraph.)

    <tt>arrow      &rarr;</tt>
    
    <tt>''italics'', '''bold'''</tt>
    
    <tt>[[wikilink]]
    
    New paragraph </tt>started here.

    arrow →

    italics, bold

    wikilink

    New paragraph started here.

    Special characters

    What you type What it looks like
    &Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; &AElig;
    
    &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;
    
    &Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde;
    
    &Ograve; &Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &OElig;
    
    &Ugrave; &Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &Yuml; &szlig;
    
    &agrave; &aacute; &acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;
    
    &egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml;
    
    &igrave; &iacute; &icirc; &iuml; &ntilde;
    
    &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &oelig;
    
    &ugrave; &uacute; &ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

    À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ

    Ç È É Ê Ë

    Ì Í Î Ï Ñ

    Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Œ

    Ù Ú Û Ü Ÿ ß

    à á â ã ä å æ ç

    è é ê ë

    ì í î ï ñ

    ò ó ô õ ö ø œ

    ù ú û ü ÿ

    Punctuation, special characters

    What you type What it looks like
    &iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;
    
    &dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;
    
    &lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;
    
    &lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;
    
    &apos; &quot;
    

    ¿ ¡ § ¶

    † ‡ • – —

    ‹ › « »

    ‘ ’ “ ”

    ' "

    Subscripts and superscripts

    Description What you type What it looks like

    Subscripts

    x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub>
    

    x1 x2 x3

    Superscripts

    x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup>
    

    x1 x2 x3

    Combined

    &epsilon;<sub>0</sub> = 8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup> C&sup2; / J m
    
    1 hectare = 1 E+4 m&sup2;
    

    ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m

    1 hectare = 1 E+4 m²

    Greek characters

    What you type What it looks like
    &alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
    
    &eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
    
    &xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
    
    &tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
    
    &Alpha; &Beta; &Gamma; &Delta; &Epsilon; &Zeta;
    
    &Eta; &Theta; &Iota; &Kappa; &Lambda; &Mu;
    
    &Nu; &Xi; &Omicron; &Pi; &Rho; &Sigma;
    
    &Tau; &Upsilon; &Phi; &Chi; &Psi; &Omega;
    

    α β γ δ ε ζ

    η θ ι κ λ μ ν

    ξ ο π ρ σ ς

    τ υ φ χ ψ ω

    Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ

    Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ

    Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ

    Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

    Mathematical characters

    What you type What it looks like
    &int; &sum; &prod; &radic;
    
    &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
    
    &asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne;
    
    &le; &ge;
    
    &times; &middot; &divide; &part;
    
    &prime; &Prime;
    
    &nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym;
    
    &oslash;
    
    &isin; &notin; &cap; &cup;
    
    &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
    
    &not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall;
    
    &rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr;
    
    &rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr;
    

    ∫ ∑ ∏ √

    − ± ∞

    ≈ ∝ ≡ ≠

    ≤ ≥

    × · ÷ ∂

    ′ ″

    ∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ

    ø

    ∈ ∉ ∩ ∪

    ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇

    ¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀

    ⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔

    → ↓ ↑ ← ↔

    Links and URLs

    Template:Main

    Free links

    In Wikipedia and some other wikis, free links are used in wikitext markup to produce internal links between pages, as opposed to the concept of CamelCase for the same purpose, which was used in the early days of Wikipedia – see CamelCase and Wikipedia.

    In Wikipedia's markup language, you create free links by putting double square brackets around text designating the title of the page you want to link to. Thus, [[Texas]] will be rendered as Texas. Optionally, you can use a vertical bar (|) to customize the link title. For example, typing [[Texas|Lone Star State]] will produce Lone Star State, a link that is displayed as "Lone Star State" but in fact links to Texas.

    Link to another wiki article

    • Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
    • Thus the link hereafter is to the Web address en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_transport, which is the Wikipedia article with the name "Public transport". See also Canonicalization.
    • A red link is a page that doesn't exist yet; it can be created by clicking on the link.
    • A link to its own page will appear only as bold text.

    Template:Markup

    Renamed link

    • Same target, different name.
    • The target ("piped") text must be placed first, then the text to be displayed second.
    What you type What it looks like

    New York also has [[public transport|public transportation]].

    New York also has public transportation.

    Automatically rename links

    • Simply typing the pipe character (|) after a link will automatically rename the link in certain circumstances. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When previewing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page.
    • See Pipe trick for details.
    Description What you type What it looks like

    Automatically hide stuff in parentheses

    [[kingdom (biology)|]]

    kingdom

    Automatically hide the comma and following text [[Seattle, Washington|]] Seattle

    Automatically hide namespace

    [[Wikipedia:Village pump|]]

    Village pump

    Or both

    [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style (headings)|]]

    Manual of Style

    But this doesn't work for section links

    [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|]]

    [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|]]

    Blend link

    • Endings are blended into the link.
      • Exception: a trailing apostrophe (') and any characters following the apostrophe are not blended.
    • Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
    • Blending can be suppressed by using the [[#Nowiki|Template:Tag]] tag, which may be desirable in some instances.
    Description What you type What it looks like

    Blending active

    San Francisco also has [[public transport]]ation. Examples include [[bus]]es, [[taxicab]]s, and [[tram]]s.

    San Francisco also has public transportation. Examples include buses, taxicabs, and trams.

    Blending suppressed

    A [[micro-]]<nowiki />second.

    A micro-second

    Link to a section of a page

    • The part after the hash sign (#) must match a section heading on the page. Matches must be exact in terms of spelling, case, and punctuation. Links to non-existent sections are not broken; they are treated as links to the beginning of the page.
    • Include "| link title" to create a stylish (piped) link title.
    • If sections have the same title, add a number to link to any but the first. #Example section 3 goes to the third section named "Example section". You can use the pipe and retype the section title to display the text without the # symbol.
    What you type What it looks like

    [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics]] is a link to a section within another page.

    Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics is a link to a section within another page.

    [[#Links and URLs]] is a link to another section on the current page. [[#Links and URLs|Links and URLs]] is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

    #Links and URLs is a link to another section on the current page. Links and URLs is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

    [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics|Italics]] is a piped link to a section within another page.

    Italics is a piped link to a section within another page.

    Create page link

    • To create a new page:
      1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
      2. Save that page.
      3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
    • For more information, see starting an article and check out Wikipedia's naming conventions.
    • Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
    Description What you type What it looks like

    Links to pages that don’t exist yet look red.

    The article about [[cardboard sandwiches]] doesn't exist yet.

    The article about cardboard sandwiches doesn't exist yet.

    Redirects

    Template:Main

    • Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
    • It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to United States#History will redirect to the History section of the United States page, if it exists.
    Description What you type

    Redirect to an article

    #REDIRECT [[United States]]

    Redirect to a section

    #REDIRECT [[United States#History]]

    Link to another namespace

    What you type What it looks like

    See the [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].

    See the Wikipedia:Manual of Style.

    Link to the same article in another language (interlanguage links)

    Template:Main Template:Notice

    • To link to a corresponding page in another language, use the form: [[language code:Foreign title]].
    • It is recommended interlanguage links be placed at the very end of the article.
    • Interlanguage links are not visible within the formatted article, but instead appear as language links on the sidebar (to the left) under the menu section "languages".
    Description What you type

    Link from English article "Plankton" to the Spanish article "Plancton".

    "es" is the language code for "Template:Lang" (the Spanish language).

    [[es:Plancton]]
    

    Other examples: French (fr for Template:Lang), German (de for Template:Lang), Russian (ru), and simple English (simple).

    [[fr:Plancton]]
    [[de:Plankton]]
    [[ru:Планктон]]
    [[simple:Plankton]]
    

    Interwiki link

    Description What you type What it looks like

    Linking to a page on another wiki in English.

    All of these forms lead to the URL http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Hello.

    Simple link.

    Without prefix.

    Named link.

    [[Wiktionary:Hello]]

    [[Wiktionary:Hello|]]

    [[Wiktionary:Hello|Wiktionary definition of "Hello"]]

    Wiktionary:Hello

    Hello

    Wiktionary definition of "Hello"

    Linking to a page on another wiki in another language.

    All of these forms lead to the URL http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/bonjour.

    Simple link.

    Without prefix.

    Named link.

    [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]

    [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]

    [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]

    Wiktionary:fr:bonjour

    fr:bonjour

    bonjour

    Categories

    • To put an article in a category, place a link like [[Category:Example]] into the article. As with interlanguage links, placing these links at the end of the article is recommended.
    • To link to a category page without putting the article into the category, use a colon prefix (":Category") in the link.
    Description What you type What it looks like

    Categorize an article.

    [[Category:Character sets]]

    Link to a category.

    [[:Category:Character sets]]

    Category:Character sets

    Without prefix.

    [[:Category:Character sets|]]

    Character sets

    External links

    • Square brackets indicate an external link. Note the use of a space (not a pipe) to separate the URL from the link text in the "named" link. Square brackets may be used as normal when not linking to anything – [like this].
    • A URL must begin with a supported URI scheme: http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; irc://, ircs://, ftp://, news://, mailto: and gopher:// will require a plugin or an external application. IPv6 addresses in URLs are currently not supported.
    • A URL containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. Encoding can be achieved by:
    • Use the link button File:Vector toolbar insert link button.png on the enhanced editing toolbar to encode the link; this tool will add the bracket markup and the linked text, which may not always be desirable.
    • Or manually encode the URL by replacing these characters:
    space " ' ,  ; < >  ? [ ]
     %20  %22  %27  %2c  %3b  %3c  %3e  %3f  %5b  %5d
    • Or use the {{urlencode:}} magic word. See Help:Magic words in the MediaWiki documentation for more details.
    Description What you type What it looks like

    Named link with an external link icon

    [http://www.wikipedia.org Wikipedia]

    Wikipedia

    Unnamed link

    (Only used within article body for footnotes)

    [http://www.wikipedia.org]

    [1]

    Bare URL

    (Bad style)

    http://www.wikipedia.org

    http://www.wikipedia.org

    Link without arrow

    (Not often used)

    <span class="plainlinks">[http://www.wikipedia.org Wikipedia]</span>

    Wikipedia

    Miscellaneous

    "As of" tag

    • "As of" tags generate phrases like "As of April 2009" or "as of April 2009", and categorize info that will need updating. For an explanation of the parameters see template documentation.
    What you type What it looks like

    {{As of|2009|4|df=us}}

    Template:As of

    {{As of|2009|4|df=us|lc=y}}

    Template:As of

    Media link

    • To include links to non image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link. For images, see next section.
    • Some uploaded sounds are listed at Commons:Sound.
    What you type What it looks like

    [[media:Classical guitar scale.ogg|Sound]]

    Sound

    Links directly into edit mode

    Description What you type What it looks like

    Full URL

    {{fullurl:Help:Wiki markup|action=edit}}

    http://www.scholarpedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Wiki_markup&action=edit

    "Edit" label

    UNIQ1cf0765b6ee1d533-nowiki-0000007B-QINU

    Template:Edit

    Automatic links

    Template:Main

    Book sources
    • Link to books using their ISBN, which creates a link to Special:BookSources. This is preferred to linking to a specific online bookstore, because it gives the reader a choice of vendors. However, if one bookstore or online service provides additional free information, such as table of contents or excerpts from the text, then a link to that source will aid the user and is recommended. ISBN links do not need any extra markup, provided you use one of the indicated formats.
    • To create a link to Special:BookSources using alternative text (e.g. the book's title), use the internal link style with the appropriate namespace.
    What you type What it looks like

    ISBN 012345678X

    ISBN 012345678X

    ISBN 0-12-345678-X

    ISBN 0-12-345678-X

    Link to a book using [[Special:BookSources/0670037818|alternative text, such as its title]]

    Link to a book using alternative text, such as its title

    RFC number
    What you type What it looks like

    Text mentioning an RFC number anywhere, e.g. RFC 4321.

    Text mentioning an RFC number anywhere, e.g. RFC 4321.

    Links partially italicized
    What you type What it looks like

    [[Hindenburg disaster|''Hindenburg'' disaster]]

    Hindenburg disaster

    Pronunciation aids

    It is often desirable to provide an aid to pronunciation for a word. The IPAc-en and Respell templates can be of assistance.

    What you type What it looks like

    '''Konjac''' {{IPAc-en|lang|pron|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}}

    Konjac Template:IPAc-en

    '''Konjac''' ({{IPAc-en|lang|pron|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}} {{respell|KOHN|yak}})

    Konjac (Template:IPAc-en Template:Respell)

    ''Konjac'' is pronounced {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}} in English.

    Konjac is pronounced Template:IPAc-en in English.

    Refer to Wikipedia:Manual of Style (pronunciation) for more information.

    Musical notation

    Template:Main Musical notation is added by using the Template:Xtag extension tag. For example:

    Template:Markup

    Images

    Only images that have been uploaded to Wikipedia can be used. To upload images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list.

    What you type What it looks like Notes
    A picture: 
    [[File:wiki.png]]
    A picture:

    File:Wiki.png

    With alternative text: 
    [[File:wiki.png|alt=Puzzle globe logo]]
    With alternative text:

    File:Wiki.png

    • Alternative text, used when the image is unavailable or when the image is loaded in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is strongly encouraged. See Alternative text for images for help on choosing it.
    With link: 
    [[File:wiki.png|link=Wikipedia]]
    With link:

    File:Wiki.png

    • The link directs to a page, Wikipedia, instead of the file.
    Floating to the right side of the page using the ''frame'' attribute and a caption: 
    [[File:wiki.png|frame|alt=Puzzle globe|Wikipedia logo]]
    Floating to the right side of the page using the frame attribute and a caption:
    File:Wiki.png
    Figure 1: Wikipedia logo

    • The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
    • The last parameter is the caption that appears below the image.
    Floating to the right side of the page using the ''thumb'' attribute and a caption: 
    [[File:wiki.png|thumb|alt=Puzzle globe|Wikipedia logo]]
    Floating to the right side of the page using the thumb attribute and a caption:
    File:Wiki.png
    Figure 2: Wikipedia logo

    • The thumb tag automatically floats the image right.
    • An enlarge icon is placed in the lower right corner.
    Floating to the right side of the page ''without'' a caption: 
    [[File:wiki.png|right|Wikipedia encyclopedia]]
    Floating to the right side of the page without a caption:
    A picture resized to 30 pixels... 
    [[File:wiki.png|30 px|Wikipedia encyclopedia]]
    A picture resized to 30 pixels...

    Wikipedia encyclopedia

    Linking directly to the description page of an image: 
    [[:File:wiki.png]]
    Linking directly to the description page of an image:

    File:wiki.png

    • Clicking on an image displayed normally on a page also leads to the description page.
    Linking directly to an image without displaying it: 
    [[Media:wiki.png|Image of jigsaw globe]]
    Linking directly to an image without displaying it:

    Image of jigsaw globe

    • To include links to images shown as links instead of drawn on the page, use a "media" link.
    Example: 
    <div style="display: inline; width: 220px; float: right;">
    Place images here </div>

    Example:

    Place images here

    Using the span or div elements to separate images from text (note that this may allow images to cover text).

    Example:
    
    {| align=right
    |-
    |
    Place images here
    |}

    Example:

    Place images here

    Using wiki markup to make a table in which to place a vertical column of images (this helps edit links match headers, especially in Firefox browsers).

    See the Wikipedia's image use policy as a guideline used on Wikipedia.

    For further help on images, including some more versatile abilities, see the picture tutorial.

    Tables

    Template:Main There are two ways to build tables:

    See also When tables are appropriate.

    References and citing sources

    Template:Main Template:See also

    Making a reference citing a printed or online source can be accomplished by using the Template:Tag tags. Inside these tags details about the reference are added.

    Details about the citation can be provided using a structure provided by various templates; the table below lists some typical citation components.

    What it's for What you type
    To create the reference Template:Tag
    To cite a book Template:Tlx
    To cite a web source Template:Tlx
    Book ISBN |isbn=0-4397-0818-4 (ISBN of the book)
    Web URL |url=
    Title |title=title of source
    Author |author=authors, use commas for multiple
    First name |first=first name
    Last name |last=last name
    Location |location=location of publisher
    Publisher |publisher=who published the source
    Date |date=2007-09-21 (date of source)
    Year |year=year of source
    Accessed date |accessdate=2008-12-25
    A complete reference tag Template:Tag{{cite web |url=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Wiki_markup |title=Help:Wiki markup |publisher=Wikimedia Foundation}}Template:Tag
    Referencing this again Template:Tag
    Citation needed Template:Tlx

    Templates and transcluding pages

    Template:Main Template:See also

    Examples for templates: {{pad|...}}, {{math|...}}, {{as of|...}}, {{edit}}

    Templates are segments of wiki markup that are meant to be copied automatically ("transcluded") into a page. You add them by putting the template's name in {{double braces}}. It is also possible to transclude other pages by using {{:colon and double braces}}.

    There are three pairs of tags that can be used in wikitext to control how transclusion affects parts of a template or article. They determine whether or not wikitext renders, either in its own article, which we will call "here", or in another article where it is transcluded, which we will call "there".

    • <noinclude>: the content will not be rendered there. These tags have no effect here.
    • <includeonly>: the content will render only there, and will not render here (like invisible ink made visible by means of transclusion).
    • <onlyinclude>: the content will render here and will render there, but it will only render there what is between these tags.

    There can be several such section "elements". Also, they can be nested. All possible renderings are achievable. For example, to render there one or more sections of the page here use <onlyinclude> tags. To append text there, wrap the addition in <includeonly> tags before, within, or after the section. To omit portions of the section, nest <noinclude> tags within it.

    If a page is transcluded without transclusion markup, it may cause an unintentional categorization. Any page transcluding it will contain the same category as the original page. Wrap the category markup with <noinclude> tags to prevent incorrect categorization.

    Some templates take parameters, as well, which you separate with the pipe character |.

    What you type What it looks like
    {{Transclusion demo}}

    Template:Transclusion demo

    {{Help:Transclusion demo}}

    Help:Transclusion demo

    This template takes two parameters,
    and creates underlined text with a
    hover box for many modern browsers
    supporting CSS:
    
    {{H:title|This is the hover text|
    Hover your mouse over this text}}
    
    Go to this page to see the H:title
    template itself: {{tl|H:title}}
    

    This template takes two parameters, and creates underlined text with a hover box for many modern browsers supporting CSS:

    Template:H:title

    Go to this page to see the H:title template itself: {{H:title}}

    Talk and project pages

    Signing comments

    • The character tilde (~) is used when adding a comment to a Talk page.
    • Your username provides a link to your user page.
    Description What you type What it looks like

    You should sign your comments by appending four tildes to the comment, which adds your user name plus date/time.

    ~~~~

    Username (talk) 05:49, 17 October 2017 (UTC)

    Adding three tildes will add just your user name.

    ~~~

    Username (talk)

    Adding five tildes gives the date/time alone.

    ~~~~~

    05:49, 17 October 2017 (UTC)

    What links here and related changes

    What you type What it looks like

    [[Special:WhatLinksHere/aaa]]

    Special:WhatLinksHere/aaa

    [[Special:RecentChangesLinked/aaa]]

    Special:RecentChangesLinked/aaa

    Linking to old revisions of pages, diffs, and specific history pages

    • External link function is mainly used for these.
    • Open an old revision or diff and copy the URL from the address bar, pasting it where you want it.
    What you type What it looks like

    [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Wiki_markup&diff=330350877&oldid=330349143 Diff between revisions 330349143 and 330350877]

    Diff between revisions 330349143 and 330350877

    • For an old revision, you can also use a permalink. Though here only the main text is guaranteed to be retained (images and templates will be shown as they are today, not as they were at the time).
    What you type What it looks like

    [[Special:Permalink/330350877|Revision 330350877]]

    Revision 330350877

    User edits

    • Link to a user's Contributions page.
    Description What you type What it looks like
    Username (registered users). [[Special:Contributions/UserName]] Special:Contributions/UserName
    IPv4 address (unregistered users). [[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]] Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0
    IPv6 address (unregistered users). [[Special:Contributions/2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:8329]] Special:Contributions/2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:8329

    Coloring text

    What you type What it looks like

    I will change the color in {{color|blue|the middle part of}} this sentence.

    I will change the color in Template:Color this sentence.

    Highlighting text

    What you type What it looks like

    This is how to {{Font color||yellow|highlight}} part of a sentence.

    This is how to Template:Font color part of a sentence.

    Show deleted or inserted text

    Template:Details

    • When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted content.
    • When editing regular Wikipedia articles, just make your changes and do not mark them up in any special way.
      • However, when the article itself discusses deleted or inserted content, such as an amendment to a statute, it is best
    What you type What it looks like

    You can Template:Tag and Template:Tag.

    You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.

    Alternative markup:

    You can Template:Tag and Template:Tag.

    Alternative markup:

    You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.

    Limiting formatting / escaping wiki markup

    A few different kinds of formatting will tell the wiki to display things as you typed them – what you see is what you get!

    What you type What it looks like
    '''&lt;nowiki&gt; tag:'''
    
    <nowiki>
    The nowiki tag ignores [[wiki]]
    ''markup''. It reformats text by
    removing newlines and multiple
    spaces. It still interprets
    characters specified by
    &name;: &rarr;
    </nowiki>

    <nowiki> tag:

    The nowiki tag ignores [[wiki]] ''markup''. It reformats text by removing newlines and multiple spaces. It still interprets characters specified by &name;: &rarr;

    '''&lt;pre&gt; tag:'''
    
    <pre>The <pre> tag ignores [[wiki]]
    ''markup'' as does the <nowiki>
    tag. Additionally, <pre> displays
    in a mono-spaced font, and does
    not  reformat    text    spaces.
    It still interprets special
    characters: &rarr;
    </pre>

    <pre> tag:

    The <pre> tag ignores [[wiki]]
    ''markup'' as does the <nowiki>
    tag. Additionally, <pre> displays
    in a mono-spaced font, and does
    not  reformat    text    spaces.
    It still interprets special
    characters: →
    '''[Text without a URL]:'''
    
    Single square brackets holding
    [text without a HTTP URL] are
    preserved, but single square
    brackets containing a URL are
    treated as being an external
    [http://example.com/ Web link].

    [Text without a URL]:

    Single square brackets holding [text without a HTTP URL] are preserved, but single square brackets containing a URL are treated as being an external Web link.

    '''Leading space:'''
    
    Leading spaces are another way
    to preserve formatting.
     Putting a space at the
     beginning of each line
     stops the text   from
     being reformatted.
     It still interprets [[wiki]] ''markup'' and special characters: &rarr;

    Leading space:

    Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.

    Putting a space at the
    beginning of each line
    stops the text   from
    being reformatted.
    It still interprets wiki markup and special characters: →
    

    Nowiki

    Template:Shortcut

    Template:Tag and Template:Tag tags stop parsing of wiki markup, except HTML character entity references (e.g., for special characters). Unlike Template:Tag, "nowiki" doesn't change formatting.

    An example of Template:Tag:

    Template:Markup

    (However in this particular case probably you prefer Template:Tlp to create a link as {{cite book}}, or Template:Tlp prints Template:Tlf.)

    A singular Template:Tag can be used to break wikimarkup.

    • Markup such as *

    , # , ;

    and :
    only and always take effect at the beginning of a line. A Template:Tag  before the markup will cause the characters to not parse as markup.
    
    • An internal link immediately followed by characters are blended to form a single link. Where this is not desired, add a Template:Tag after the link.
    • HTML(-like) tags can be stopped parsing by inserting Template:Tag after the opening angle bracket.

    Template:Markup

    If you want to write tags, {{tag}} template is handy. E.g. Template:Tlp prints Template:Tag.

    HTML entities

    Template:Tag and Template:Tag parse HTML entities. If you want to escape this, replace & with &amp;.

    Template:Markup

    Use in templates

    When used in a template, Template:Tag simply does not work as you may expect.

    • Including Template:Tag immediately acts upon the enclosed markup. Attempting to escape or transclude the brackets causes Template:Tag to not work at all.
    • Using #tag:nowiki
    works, but has major limitations:
    
      • Templates, parameters, parser functions, and parser magic such as signatures are parsed, not nowikied.
      • Included Template:Tag tags will expose the strip markers.

    Template:Markup

    Pre

    Template:Shortcut

    Template:Tag is a parser tag that emulates the HTML Template:Tag tag. It defines preformatted text that is displayed in a fixed-width font and is enclosed in a dashed box. HTML and wiki markups are escaped and spaces and line breaks are preserved, but HTML entities are parsed.

    Template:Markup

    Template:Tag formatted text does not wrap, thus text may extend past the browser window:

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

    To resolve this, Template:Tag may use CSS styling to add wrapping or a horizontal scrollbar:

    Alternatively, consider using {{pre2}} template or Template:Xtag.

    Invisible text (comments)

    Template:Merge to Template:See also

    It's uncommonTemplate:Spaced ndashbut on occasion acceptable for notes to other editorsTemplate:Spaced ndashto add a hidden comment within the text of an article. These comments are only visible when editing or viewing the source of a page. Most comments should go on the appropriate Talk page. The format is to surround the hidden text with "<!--" and "-->" and may cover several lines, e.g.:

    <!-- An example of hidden comments
     This won't be visible except in "edit" mode. -->
    

    Another way to include a comment in the wiki markup uses the {{Void}} template, which can be abbreviated as {{^}}. This template "expands" to the empty string, generating no HTML output; it is visible only to people editing the wiki source. Thus Template:J operates similarly to the comment Template:J. The main difference is that the template version can be nested, while attempting to nest HTML comments produces odd results.

    Variables

    Template:Seealso

    Template:Namespaces

    Code Effect Notes
    {{CURRENTWEEK}} 42
    {{CURRENTDOW}} 2

    Monday = 1, Tuesday = 2, etc., but Sunday = 0

    {{CURRENTMONTH}} 10
    {{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} October
    {{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}} October
    {{CURRENTDAY}} 17
    {{CURRENTDAYNAME}} Tuesday
    {{CURRENTYEAR}} 2017
    {{CURRENTTIME}} 05:49
    {{NUMBEROFARTICLES}} 2,348
    {{NUMBEROFPAGES}} 37,947
    {{NUMBEROFUSERS}} 17,408
    {{PAGENAME}} Jonathan R. Williford/Help:ScholarWiki
    {{NAMESPACE}} User
    {{REVISIONID}} 141118
    {{REVISIONUSER}} Jonathan R. Williford
    {{localurl:pagename}} /article/Pagename
    {{localurl:Wikipedia:Sandbox|action=edit}} /w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Sandbox&action=edit
    {{fullurl:pagename}} http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Pagename
    {{fullurl:pagename|query_string}} http://www.scholarpedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pagename&query_string
    {{SERVER}} http://www.scholarpedia.org
    {{ns:1}} Talk

    {{ns:index}} e.g. {{ns:1}} → full name of namespace

    {{SITENAME}} Scholarpedia

    Template:Tlf is the number of pages in the main namespace which contain a link and are not a redirect. This includes full articles, stubs containing a link, and disambiguation pages.

    Template:Tlf is the genitive (possessive) grammatical form of the month name, as used in some languages but not in English; Template:Tlf is the nominative (subject) form, as usually seen in English.

    In languages where it makes a difference, you can use constructs like {{grammar:case|word}} to convert a word from the nominative case to some other case. For example, {{grammar:genitive|{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}}} means the same as {{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}.

    HTML

    Template:Main

    Many HTML tags can be used in wiki markup. You can check your HTML by using markup validation.

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