User:Nazar Abbas Naqvi/Proposed/Existence beyond time
.The author of this page has been blocked because no affiliation was given. This draft is not being considered for publication. Scholarpedia requires an expert of the field as an author of any article being considered for publication.
NatureIt is recognized that there was no space divided into galaxies, thus no universe and no darkness to understand the light, Big Bang theory is the core subject of our science at cosmology. Every created thing and every object had a place permanently fixed and none can change the assigned position of nature. Decay is the supreme proof of art of creation. As soon as things came into existence they were allotted properties and place in nature. And soon after creation of things, their expansion arrangement is self eminent by virtue of equilibrium which is proof of determined extension. Nothing can move in more than one direction naturally. If more than one direction is considered naturally then Physics Law of action and reaction is disturbed. The observance of more direction is due to disturbance in space by virtue of change in surrounding momentum (Rest and Motion), which is simply a concern of equilibrium. The fact that everything in nature and every object created depends for its movement and rest is the clue of one way movement of nature. Nature by itself or by order, after having set a scheme, a set of laws to govern it and also a routine to be followed and after giving form and properties to each and every object is called law of nature. If nature followed the order, then question beyond nature is self explanatory.
ScienceSecond name of nature is science, thus beyond nature means beyond Science. Science is to understand the nature and to understand the nature is practical science. Practical science provides us different approaches; therefore, we have developed various branches. Literally science means knowledge. In fact the realization of one’s limitation as well as obligation is the actual depth of knowledge and height of understanding. In simple words functioning of matter in its frame is the science of matter for its own existence, crossing its limits either itself or through other factors i.e. matter or force would lead to change in its existence.
SpaceSpace and space-time can and do not exist apart from the matter and energy that creates the gravitational field [ Dr. Sten Odenwald (Raytheon STX) for the NASA Astronomy Café]. Space encompasses everything in existence, from atom to the largest galaxy, including everything between our earth and sky and all is collectively called universe. Movement of every objects of universe is in the space. Space is not moving, if it is moving then it may be legitimate to claim that there is something outside the space for movement of our universal space, in which our present universe is expanding into, thus movement of space, cannot sustain the property of vacuum because of space’s movement in vacuum. Logically, space is nothing more than a system. In fact it is a frame of composition of all possible entropies of universal mass and its disordered arrangement like solid, liquid, gas and plasma etc. Their interrelation is called force and termed as law of nature while referred as a whole. Manifestation of nature is dominated by its law, whereas a limitation of our observation and perception is proclamation of nature and beyond nature. Thus beyond nature is our inability to think about and not the limitation of nature itself.Our sound observation is that: there is no “space that stands apart from space-time itself.
TimeGenerally time is defined in terms of seconds, minutes, hours, days, years etc. In all such measurements we can change the magnitude of unites of time i.e. increase in magnitude of hours we may make a day of 20 hours. The control over time suggests that time is not a natural element and depends on manmade laws. Although we cannot change recurrence of day and night or increase the duration of night or day by way of changing our time scale with reference to earth and sun. But we know that period of day and night is not the same as comparing the sun with earth and moon or mars. With this explanation it is obvious that time is just like a phase issue of matter. Change of state of matter is issue of external natural or artificial applications or inter-relations. We have grip over time we have framed whether momentum clock or atomically digitized device. In all such cases we measure the speed just comparing its motion indirectly to the motion we use as standard. We can manage time scale at our will by setting the dimensions of our clock or similar digital devices with motion of any suitable object i.e. with moon instead of sun. We cannot study the time without matter and energy. However we may discuss about matter without time e.g. an atom of Hydrogen on earth or beyond earth space, this atom’s shifting/movement will generate the question of time, otherwise the question of time is not the necessity of matter for its existence. On the other hand the issue of time cannot be raised and discussed without the existence of matter, thus the question of time is secondary and matter is primary issue, without which we cannot talk about time. This suggests time is a derived property of matter depends on mass and weight of matter.
Fast and Slow Time – Speed of Light as a vector :It is possible to observe slower or faster speed of light depending upon the reference frame from where the measurements are made. Speed of light is constant “c” in the respective local reference frames. Neither time can be observed to run faster or slower in a local reference frame nor can the speed of light be observed to be faster or slower in a local reference frame. Speed of light within a moving object can be calculated by using velocity as a vector. In image (Fig-A) the yellow spaceship is moving to the right with velocity v. A ray of light passes vertically in reference frame of observer moving with the spaceship and this is seen to move diagonally in reference frame of a stationary observer. By just using velocities as vectors we can show that the vertical ray of light within the spaceship should be moving slowly from the point of view of a non-moving observer. As this observer also sees slower time in the moving spaceship ship he should conclude that slowing of all motion within the moving spaceship including the motion of the photon is part of slowing of time. Similarly we get the same result for light moving horizontally (Fig-B) through a spaceship in or against the direction of motion to show that velocity of light reduces within moving objects as part of slowing of time. (Source <firstname.lastname@example.org>) 
Time is a method to compare the different types of motion, in fact, it is a measurement by comparing one standard motion against another e.g. speed of light. We also present the time as past, present and future. We also know that the time represented by “present” cannot be measured, because all of what we perceive as the “present” is already past. Unlike the present only past and future are measurable in terms of an event and its period with boundaries or limits as past and future. Whereas the term “present” is just a reference for convenience of comparison. Hence, it is deduced that present is the center of past and future (end of past and start of future is called present) with particular reference to its observer to the extent of its observation. In this case, merits or demerits and their equilibrium cannot be established without comparison with a standard i.e. comparing day with night and vice versa. In all such situations there exist an event with its period; therefore speed of light is also a standard unit of time in term of event. That is why; the event of Big Bang which does not have a comparison is beyond time definition, however, this event cannot be questioned by virtue of its existence. If Big Bang is our past and time is not a must for that event then why is it compulsory for future? Simply it is not compulsory for past or future, it is required for comparison.
Our own existence is beyond our power or desires, our births, growth and mental developments are all subject of the laws of creation or nature. We do not have choice in our birth and death; we are bound to obey the law of nature. Our birth is past our death is future. In this way our birth is composition or creation and death is decomposition or decay in all circumstance is fixed event of past and future and the question of its expansion depend in between the frame of past and future. Mathematically there is no past there is only future, the square of future is past by virtue of Inverse Square Law. Can we say here that our present in terms of time definition was dissolved in future? Certainly not, we would say that our present in terms of time was dissolved in past.
In Kinematics the subject of motion cannot be studied without matter and energy whether at rest or motion. In case matter is at rest, we cannot say that matter has lost its existence. The matter at rest is a timeless issue for their existence, however, we use the time as a tool to compare or evaluate the efficiency of matter and energy transferred during motion. For the time being, we suppose that past and future is rest and motion respectively. In this case our kinematics is not disturbed because past (rest) means potential or energy stored and future (motion) means transfer of energy.
Existence may be observed or perceived through Rest and Motion and both are inter-related and interdependent. A person may be at rest with respect to another person but they both may be in motion with respect to other objects. If a body is changing its position with respect to its surrounding, then it is said to be in motion. Therefore, dependency or reversal to rest or vice versa is proof of existence, which can be defined as “Existence is the ability to protract rest or motion and the power required for maintaining this ability is the force of objects”.
Broadly, existence means motion or change in motion with or without change of position. This change in motion may be of different kinds e.g. in cricket, a hit of batsman catched by other cricket player is an example of an incomplete movement. With reference to Energy and Force, rest is the power of motion and motion is the power of rest, which depends on mass of the objects acting for their positions either for rest or motion. Inability of the object to maintain either rest or motion means loss of power which is the proof of its non-existence. Things lose their existence is called their decay. Whereas decrease or increase in rest and motion will be the result of composition or decomposition and to be governed by laws of temperature and pressure. Their change in mass and position is dealt with transfer of energy under force and motion without loss of their existence.
We know that the change in rest or motion of an object is the result of action of other objects (Newton’s law). When the velocity of changes taking place in the rest and motion of object is constant in proportionate to their masses with STP , then understanding/observance of change would become incomprehensive. Similarly the present action of an event with reference to its past and future is indefinable because we are unable to show the present at one side either past or future. Thus we are unable to say that what is present, in fact the present event is either past or to be in future, in all such circumstance our observation and perception confirms that there is change in between past and future. Hence we presume a third event denoting it with “present”. Materialistically our present is without mass or energy. Therefore present or present time is a presumption for comparing motion of objects with the motion of an object we designed as our standard.
- Cosmological constant at scholarpedia by Tamara Davis and Mr. Brendan Griffen,
- Central configurations at scholarpedia by Richard Moeckel,
- Entropy at scholarpedia by Tomasz Downarowicz
- Dark energy at scholarpedia by Dr. Eric Linder
Draft under consideration