# Help:Wikitext formatting

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This help page was designed as a guide for Scholarpedia authors who have no knowledge in Wikitext formatting. In it, the reader will find:

• An introduction to Scholarwiki, the dialect of the Wikitext markup language used in Scholarpedia, and
• An introduction to some elementary actions that authors of Scholarpedia articles should master.

Remarks

• This is a help page. Do not use it as an example of an encyclopedic article.
• This page was written using advanced Scholarwiki features. The beginner is not advised to read its source code.
• Advanced sections that can be skipped in a first read-through are marked by (*)
• Please correct misprints or signal them to help@scholarpedia.org.

## Introduction to Scholarwiki

Wikitext is a markup language that was designed to be much simpler than LaTeX or HTML. Web pages in Scholarpedia, including articles, are written in a dialect of Wikitext called Scholarwiki. This dialect is similar to Mediawiki, the Wikitext dialect used in Wikipedia, and is run using open-source software that is a development branch of a version of Mediawiki. Scholarwiki and Mediawiki are not identical; some advanced features of Scholarwiki are absent in Mediawiki, and vice versa.

To implement Scholarwiki in your article, do one or more of the following:

1. Open an existing Scholarpedia article, e.g., Bursting, and click edit at the upper right. Inspect the article's source text (but do not click save unless you have made useful revisions to the article), and apply any relevant markups to your article.
2. Take a look at Article Template. To use the template, just click edit and then copy and paste the source content into your article. Once you have applied the template to your article, you can change the text to suit your needs (for example, add more tags for sections, bullet points, etc., as explained below).
3. Read the sections and subsections below that are relevant to your article.

(Note: If you would like to use LaTeX, you can find a simple LaTeX to Wikitext converter here. It uses context replacement to change LaTeX math environments to $...$ brackets, but see also Including math below.)

## Text formatting

### Sections and subsections

• To create a section title, type == Section title == in a new line.
• To create a subsection title, type === Subsection title === in a new line.
• To create a subsubsection title, type ==== Subsubsection title ==== in a new line.

Use sentence-style capitalization for section and subsection titles. Separate paragraphs within each section with a white line.

For articles containing three or more sections, a table of contents will be generated automatically.

Further reading: http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Help:Formatting.

### Paragraphs, white space and indentation

• New paragraphs are not indented by default. To indent a new paragraph, start it with :, ::, or :::, depending on the desired indentation.
• If the first character of a new paragraph is a white space, you get a colored box useful for source code. Be careful. Starting a new paragraph with an unwanted white space is a common error.
This line started with a space. Note the different font and background color.

• A source code box can also be obtained by using the <pre> tag. For example, if you type <pre> a=1; b+=a;</pre>, you get
 a=1; b+=a;
• Paragraphs and other structures are separated by white lines. Contrary to LaTeX, the more white lines you leave, the more vertical space is skipped.
• To force a line break without leaving a white line, type </br>.
• White space within a line is not semantically relevant: you type a b c  you get a b c
• To add a comment in your wikitext that should not be shown, type <!-- --> with your comment between the two sets of dashes.

### Bulleted lists

To create a bulleted list, insert an asterisk (*) at the start of each line. For indented bullets, insert two, three, etc. asterisks at the start of each line. For example:

You get... When you type...
• one
• two
• three
• three.one
• three.two
• three.three
• three.three.one
• three.three.two
• three.three.three

this is the end of the list

* one
* two
* three
** three.one
** three.two
** three.three
*** three.three.one
*** three.three.two
*** three.three.three
this is the end of the list


Further reading: http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Help:List.

### Numbered lists

To create a numbered list, insert a number sign (#) at the start of each line. For subitems, insert two, three, etc. number signs at the start of the line. For example:

You get... When you type...
1. one
2. two
3. three
1. three.one
2. three.two
3. three.three
1. three.three.one
2. three.three.two
3. three.three.three

this is the end of the list

# one
# two
# three
## three.one
## three.two
## three.three
### three.three.one
### three.three.two
### three.three.three
this is the end of the list


Further reading: http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Help:List.

### Bold and italics

• To produce bold text, type either '''bold text''' or <b>bold text</b>.
• To produce italic text, type either ''italic text'' or <i>italic text</i>.
• To produce bold+italic text, type either '''''bold+italic text''''' or <b><i>bold+italic text</i></b>.

Use bold for definitions and italics for emphasis. For example, "... Washington, DC is the capital of the USA. Do not confuse it with the state of Washington..."

Use <strong>...</strong> brackets at the top of the article when you define your main topic. This improves your article’s classification in Google PageRank and its placement in Google (and other search engine) results.

Further reading: http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Help:Formatting.

### Subscripts and superscripts

• To make text appear as subscript, use the <sub> </sub> brackets. For example, I<sub>Ca</sub> appears as ICa.
• To make text appear as superscript, use the <sup> </sup> brackets. For example, Ca<sup>2+</sup> appears as Ca2+.

## Links

A link is a tool used to redirect the reader's browser elsewhere in Scholarpedia (internal link) or to a web page external to Scholarpedia (external link). The link is usually designated by underlined blue text, which the reader must click in order to be redirected.

In Scholarwiki, there are three main types of links: automatic internal links, user-defined internal links, and external links.

### Automatic internal links

If you write a sequence of words that matches the title of an existing Scholarpedia article, the autolinker tool will create an automatic internal link to that article. The autolinker tries to match the longest title first. For example, the phrase "using attractor reconstruction method" will result in an autolink to the article on attractor reconstruction rather than to the article on attractor.

The autolinking feature can be very useful, but in some cases it could redirect to an existing article that has nothing to do with your subject. If this happens, please inform your editor, and he will create a disambiguation page to deal with the conflicting topics.

You can control the autolinking process by inserting the following text anywhere in the article:

__AUTOLINKER{n|title to exclude 1|title to exclude 2|...|title to exclude N}


The first argument, a non-negative integer n, limits the number of autolinks to any particular title. The other arguments, separated by the pipe "|", are the titles of the articles that should be excluded from the autolinking process. Using this code will create links for all first matches of titles apart from "title to exclude 1," "title to exclude 2," etc. This code may be useful in an article on, for example, gamma ray bursts, where autolinks to neuronal bursting would not be desirable.

To turn off the autolinker, place the following line anywhere in the article:

__AUTOLINKER{0}


The default state is __AUTOLINKER{1}, i.e., only the first match for any title is converted to a link to this title.

### User-defined internal links

• Only make internal links on the first reference to a term in a paragraph, as if to provide, or remind your readers of, the definition of the term.
• If the target page exists, the text is shown in blue or violet. If the page does not exists, the text is rendered in red (broken link).
• If when writing your article you feel that some correlated articles are necessary but do not exist, create a user-defined link to each article you need. The editors will see the broken links and try to invite authors for those articles.
• A link to the section "my section" of some page is obtained by using: [[Title of the target page#my section| text to be shown]] or [[Title of the target pagee#my section]]. If the section does not exist, the link is to the top of the page.
• An in-page link to "my section" is obtained by [[#my section| text to be shown]] or by [[#my section]].

You get... When you type...

Nice reference: here.

Nice reference: [[Main page| here]].

Nice reference: Main page.

Nice reference: [[Main page]].

Nice reference: Main poge.

Nice reference: [[Main poge]].

Nice reference: here.

Nice reference: [[Main page#Curatorship| here]].

Nice reference: Main page#Curatorship.

Nice reference: [[Main page#Curatorship]].

[[#Figures | In-page link to section figures]]

In-page link to section figures: #Figures.

In-page link to section figures: [[#Figures]].